आपणास माझे लेखन आवडते आहे असे ब्लॉगला भेट देणारांच्या वाढत्या संख्येवरून वाटते. विषेशकरून कर्णकथेला वाचक पुष्कळ मिळाले. आपल्या प्रतिक्रिया जरूर मिळावयास हव्यात! त्याशिवाय लिहीत राहण्याचा उत्साह कसा टिकून रहाणार?
I changed over from Marathi to English for my comments on Shri. Oak's book recently. I continue to get readers but there are no comments! Wonder whether I am boring!
Thursday, October 20, 2016
Shri Oak has identified a period in the past when Arundhati was walking ahead of Vasishtha as described by Vyasa. This is based on the Right Ascension differential as obtained from software (which I presume itself based on observations and mathematics and algorithms). We can assume these data to be correct.
As we see today, the difference between the declinations of A and V is very small. That makes it difficult to decide who is ahead, to a naked eye observer. If you see any sky photo, it will bring out the position. We have to enlarge the photo before we notice with naked eye, Arundhati, distinct from Vasishtha
It would be interesting to know what were the declination figures for Arundhati and Vasishtha at 1)start of the ‘epoch’, 2) at the time Arundhati was Max. ahead of Vasishtha 3) at end of the ‘epoch’ and 4) today when Arundhathi is still significantly behind Vasistha (after being much behind earlier). This will enable one to judge (of course qualitatively speaking) the ability of a naked eye observer to assert that Arundhati was ahead at the Mahabharata war time.
I invite Shri. Oak to let us know the declination figures which, I suppose will be easily available. Any other reader with access to suitable software is also invited to do it.
Thursday, October 13, 2016
I have written detailed comments on the concept of fall of Abhijit here earlier. One key line in the shlokas about this topic is ‘धनिष्ठादि तदा कालो ब्रह्मणा परिनिर्मितः.’
Dr. P. V. Vartak had interpreted this to mean that year started from the time when Sun was in Dhanishtha and the appropriate time for start of year should be Summer Solstice as that marks the end of summer and beginning of rainy season in Northern India. Start of year from start of rains is quite logical.
Shri. Oak has accepted this theory as far as I know. Summer Solstice was occurring when Sun was in Dhanishtha around 14,500 BCE and therefore the conclusion is that Brahma started his system of marking the end of old year and start of new year around 14,500 BCE. I was also in agreement with this conclusion.
Recently, out of curiosity I tried to read ‘The Orion’ by Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak. I followed his writing only for the first chapter! Later I felt completely out of my depth and gave up. However from what little I followed I gathered two premises he has elucidated.
1. Year was defined by commencement and completion of a set of sacrifices called ‘Satra’, which ran for a full year. Start of the Satra, and thus of the year, was initially from Vernal Equinox. The period from Vernal Equinox to Autumnal Equinox was called the ‘Deva Ayana’ Devas were all supposed to be residing at the Meru or Celestial North Pole and this period was called ‘Deva Ayana’ because Sun would be above the equator and visible to the Devas at Meru. Deva Ayana was the original Uttarayana as Sun was to the north of equator during the period from Vernal to Autumnal equinox. When Sun reached Autumnal equinox, half the year was over. The day of AE was Vishuva Din and it was the middle day of the year. The second half of the year was Dakshinayana or Pitrayana as Sun was below equator, the region of Pitaras. Tilak has quoted many references from Vedas and other vaidik literature in support of this position.
2. At a latter period, start of year was shifted to Winter Solstice. Uttarayana was now defined as the period during which Sun moved towards North upto Summer Solstice. The other half of the year was the Dakshinayana when the Sun moved southwards from SS to WS. In present times, that is how we understand Uttarayana and Dakshinayana. He further says that this change was for general civil purposes but the old system of starting year from Vernal Equinox also continued for conducting Satras. He has of course quoted references for this too!
3. Krittika was the first nakshatra according to him based on many references. I did not find any mention of Dhanishtha as first nakshatra in his book. There is a curious mention that ‘If Sun turns back before reaching Dhanishtha, it would be a bad omen’ according to some Rishi. Now Sun can ‘turn back' before reaching Dhanishtha only if SS or WS was at Dhanishtha, some 100 years previously.
4. Tilak has not made any reference to the Shloka from Mahabharat, ‘Dhanishthadi ...’
Now the question arises – How to reconcile what Tilak says with ‘Dhanishthadi Tada Kaalo ...’ from Mahabharata? Dhanishtha was at Vernal Equinox in 21000BCE.If Year began initially from Vernal Equinox as Tilak states, did Brahma set the start of year from Dhanishtha in 21000 BCE? Tilak however has NOT claimed such Large Antiquity for Vedas etc. I refer the question to Shri. Nilesh oak and other learned readers.
Monday, September 26, 2016
I have shown in an earlier post that a very short krishna paksha as described by Vyasa to have occured just prior to start of war is very much possible. It occured in Sept 2016 and the period from end of Purnima to Start of Amavasya was 311 hours and that between End of Purnima and End of Amavasya (The full Krishnapaksha) was 335 1/2 hours. Both these were well below the equivalent of 14 thithis and 15 tithis.
As against these short periods, I invite Shri. Oak to find out by use of his software the periods which occured in 5561 BCE in the fortnight ending on 16th Oct. This will quantitatively establish the 'shortness' or otherwise of that Paksha and will test his claim in his book that it was short. I have no software so cannot do it myself. Any other reader having recourse to that type of software can also try his hand at it.
Saturday, September 24, 2016
Saturn and Jupiter troubling Rohini is a problem as they are nowhere near Rohini. It some old posts about fall of Abhijit I had referred to the remark by Shri. Oak that some researchers consider Jyeshtha also as alternate Rohini. Does that surmise apply here too? Are Saturn and Jupiter supposed to be troubling Jyeshtha, alternate Rohini? According to another reference they should have been near Vishakha at the time of war, having gone retrograde earlier and having stayed put for an year (संवत्सरस्थायिनौ, विशाखयाः समीपस्थौ). Shri. Oak does find retrograde motion but does not find them close to Vishakha, but even from where they are, viz. Jupiter at Shravan and Saturn at Hasta, they were sufficiently close to Jyeshtha to cause trouble to Jyeshtha, alternate Rohini. If, in any other year proposed by any other researcher, if Saturn and Jupiter do end up closer than this to Vishakha, they would definitely be causing trouble to Jyeshtha! I invite Shri. Oak to give his view.
Friday, September 16, 2016
There are three positions of Saturn mentioned in the Mahabharata text. 1. विशाखयोः समीपस्थौ उभौ २. भाग्यं नक्षत्रमाक्रम्य ३. रोहिणींम् पीडयते. Prima Facie they appear mutually exclusive, if one is satisfied other two are not met. Shri. Oak actually finds Saturn at Hasta at the start of war as proposed by him in Oct 5561 BCE.
1.I am prepared to accept that Saturn is near enough to Vishakha, giving weightage to the other two points of description of Saturn and Jupiterin the reference, viz. संवत्सरस्थायिनौ and प्रज्वलितौ which are satisfied by both as they went retrograde on either side of Vishakha and were also bright due to retrograde motion. 2. Saturn at Hasta was close to भाग्यं नक्षत्रम् (उत्तरा फाल्गुनि) for quite some time before war date again due to retrograde motion. The use of present tense by Vyasa can be kept aside for the moment.
3. Regarding the third reference of Saturn afflicting Rohini, how to reconcile this with Saturn at Hasta? Shri Oak says in his book that Saturn was 'somewhere in the western sky when Rohini was rising in the east and claims that from that position, it could be considered 'afflicting' Rohini.
It is difficult to visualize what an actual observer would see in the sky, from co-ordinates of Saturn (at Hasta) and Rohini. I show two schematic views of the night sky, one when Rohini is on western horizon and another when Saturn is about to rise in the east. I presume an actual picture can be generated by use of software. My pictures show a view as seen by an observer standing in the open and looking at the Celestial North Pole (no star there in those days)
I invite Shri. Oak to generate similar pictorial views with his software to enable seeing relative positions of Rohini and Saturn as actually seen by an observer. With that, maybe, we can judge his 'claim' more realistically.
Wednesday, September 7, 2016
I continued to check for short Krishnapaksha for the following month of Bhadrapada. It shows some interesting features.
1. Purnima is shown on 16th Sept. Purnima had begin at 3-15 AM. It continued for the whole day and ended 35 minutes after midnight.
2. Krishnapaksha began from 17th Sept and continued till 30th Sept. 5 hr.41min. after midnight. Total length of the Krishnapaksha ending on end of Amavasya will be 14 full days and 5 hrs. or 341 hours.
3. The gap between end of Purnima and start of Amavasya (on 29th Sept 3hrs. 41 min. after midnight) is 13 full days and 3 hrs. 20 min. or 315 hrs. 20 minutes.
4. Both these measures of krisnapaksha have shown an increase over the previous month. An interesting feature is that on 21 Sept. both tithis 5 and 6 are shown. There is Tithi lope or kshaya of one tithi in Bhadrapada also as was the case in Shravan.
5. A lunar eclipse is shown on the Purnima - 16th Sept. - but it is only nominal.
6. There are 13 days between Purnima day 16th Sept. and Amavasya day 30th Sept. So it is still a short paksha of 14 days instead of 15 days. Vyasa has said that 14 day, 15 day or even occasionally 16 day paksha is no big deal.
7. The length of Krishnapaksha will now continue to show growth for some months untill it reaches the high point and then it will start reducing. I will look for the NEXT short Krishnapaksha with interest but I do not expect to see a 12 day paksha with lunar and solar eclipses at either end tagged on, anytime in the near future. I happened to land on one last month to my delight.
Sunday, August 21, 2016
Vyasa has talked about a very short Lunar Fortnight from Previous Purnima to The Amavasya on the day just prior to the start of the Mahabharat War. That is the talk between Vyasa and Dhritarashtra when Vyasa describes many bad omens which he sees and which point to the disaster which is going to hit the Kuru dynasty. He says that the fortnight is only of 12 days from Purnima to Amavasya instead of the normal 14 days’ gap or a shorter, but not unusual, 13 days’ gap or even the rare 15 days’ gap. I stated in my earlier post describing what I would verify for any proposed war year, that the lunar fortnight ending on the Amavasya at the start of the war must match this description. The consensus is that it is an extremely unlikely event. Many attempts have been made to check whether this is possible without positive outcome.
I have a surprise for interested readers!
I happened to take a look at the Kalanirnay Calendar for August 2016 and was shocked to note a short fortnight right there!
1. On 17th Aug. it says it is Narali Purnima. Purnima begins ‘in the evening’ at 4-27 PM. Why Purnima then? Because Narali Purnima is an evening affair so you need to have Purnima in the evening. (That is how I understand it)
2. On 18th Aug. it says Shravan Purnima or Rakshabandhan. At sunrise it was a Purnima so it is a Purnima day. Purnima however ended at 2-56 PM.
3. On 19th and 20th Aug. calendar shows Pratipada and Dvitiya. Resp.
4. On 21st Aug. calendar says it is 3 and 4. It is called Sankashti Chaturthi with moonrise at 9-21 PM. Time for beginning of Chaturthi is 8-17 AM and end of Chaturthi is 29-43 PM or 5-43 AM on 22nd Aug. Chaturthi will end before sunrise on 22nd Aug. (These timings are shown on the back page of the calendar.)There is thus a tithi-kshaya here. (Two tithis on the same day.)
5. Then for next 9 days, from 22nd Aug. to 30th Aug. there are consecutive tithis from 5 to 13 (Krishna Panchami to Trayodashi)
6. On 31st Aug. Calendar shows 14th or Chaturdashi. It also shows the Chaturdashi ending and Amavasya beginning at 2-03 PM and calls the day Pithori Amavasya! ( I believe the Puja for Pithori is an Evening event.)
7. On 1st Sept. calendar shows Shravan Amavasya. It was Amavasya at sunrise but it ends at 2-32 PM.
18th August is Purnima and 31st Aug. is Amavasya. There are 12 days between the two!. One tithi, (4th – Chaturthi) has suffered a loss (tithi kshaya) which causes the short fortnight.
Surprisingly, there is a Lunar Eclipse shown on 17th August and Solar Eclipse on 1st Sept. (Both are not visible in India.) Vyasa also had talked of a Lunar Eclipse on the Purnima and a solar eclipse, indirectly hinted and vaguely described, on the first day of war which was a continuation of Amavasya. Of course, you can see a solar eclipse only after sunrise.
Events during this fortnight of August show a surprising similarity with what Vyasa says!
Let us calculate the period between end of Purnima and beginning of Amavasya here.
1. Purnima ended on 18th Aug. at 2-56 PM.
2. On 31st Aug., 13 days later, almost an hour earlier, at 2-03 PM, Amavasya began. The gap is 12 x 24 + 23 hours, or 311 hours. The average period for 14 tithis should be 14 x 24 = 336 hours less 6 hours since lunar month is about 29 1/2 days and not 30 days or say, 330 hrs).
3. The period from End of Purnima to End of Amavasya can also be checked. It is from 18th Aug. 2-56 PM to 1st Sept. 2-32 PM. i. e. 1/2 hour less than 14 full days or 335 1/2 hours against the average of 15 days less 6 hours or 354 hours.
It is clear, this fortnight is a ‘really short’ fortnight.
What Vyasa describes is thus definitely possible and being an unusual event, carefully noted down by Vyasa, any proposed war year under verification must show occurrence of it.
My demand for it is vindicated.
As a matter of curiosity I verified the length of the Krishna Fortnight (from start of Pratipada to End of Amavasya) for the past several months from the data given on Kalanirnay. I find the following figures in hours (rounded off to half hour)
1. Shaka 1936 Pousha - 368.5 hrs.
2. Magha - 360.5 hrs.
3. Falgun - 351.5 hrs.
4. Shaka 1937 Chaitra - 344.0 hrs.
5. Vaishakh - 336.5 hrs.
6. Jyeshtha - 334.0 hrs.
7. Adhik Ashadh - 336.0 hrs.
8. Nija Ashadha - 340.0 hrs.
9. Shravan - 348.0 hrs.
10. Bhadrapad - 357.0 hrs.
11. Ashvin - 366.0 hrs.
12. Kartik - 372.0 hrs.
13. Margashirsha - 374.0 hrs.
14. Pousha - 373.0 hrs.
15. Magha - 367.5 hrs.
16. Falgun - 359.5 hrs.
17.Shaka 1938 Chaitra - 350.0 hrs.
18. Vaishakh - 341.5 hrs.
19. Jyeshtha - 336.0 hrs.
20. Ashadh - 334.0 hrs.
21. Shravan - 335.0 hrs.
One can see a pattern of increasing and decreasing length of the paksha as compared to 15 days less 6hrs or 354 hrs. Jyeshtha of Shaka 1937 also had a short Krishnapaksha of 334 hrs. Calendar shows 2nd June as Purnima and it continues till 9.48 PM. Amavasya however is shown on 16th June and it continues till 9.35 PM. There are 13 days between these two dates so it does not match with Vyasa's description. Also there were no eclipses on either day. So out of short Krishnapakshas of 334/335 hours which will occur from time to time, only very few will match Vyasa's description. I am amazed that, accidentally, I noted that Shravan of Shaka 1938 matches it in all respects.